A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater.

However, many pollutants, especially highly complex compounds, are not efficiently biodegraded by microorganisms; they may be resistant to biodegradation, and consequently persist in the wastewater, thus compromising water quality. To overcome these limitations, bioaugmentation strategies may be used